Tram Lines And Pedestrian Priority Zone Idea
Like many historical city centers in the world, Ulus is now exposed to much more private vehicle access than its physical conditions can bear. The excessive use of private vehicles in the region also prevents public transportation and the movement of pedestrians in general, causing the existing values of the region to disappear over time. Since the region is built on a historical heritage, it is not possible to solve the traffic problem in the region with underground interventions such as tunnels and sunken exits.
In many cities of the developed countries with similar characteristics, the transportation problem has been solved by establishing light rail public transportation lines on the ground and giving priority to pedestrians throughout the region. The similar characteristics of the project area have revealed the idea that the traffic problem in the region can be solved by creating tram lines, strengthening public transportation and giving priority to pedestrians. In this context, two tram lines on the north-south axis and east-west axes have been proposed for the nation in general.
The following gains have been achieved with tram lines:
- Access to the area has been made comfortable with tram lines.
- The area has been prioritized for pedestrians.
- Intervention of emergency vehicles (fire brigade, ambulance, security, etc.) to the region has been made easier.
- The potential to expand Ulus Square has emerged.
- The potential for the re-emergence of the role of Cumhuriyet street in history has emerged.
The Idea of “Atatürk Road”
Today's Cumhuriyet Street, which is a connection road between the station and the historical city of Ankara, has become a road where the foundations of the Republic of Turkey were laid and all the decisions regarding the young Republic of Turkey were taken after Atatürk and his companions came to Ankara. With the participation of Atatürk and his friends, all the important ceremonies of the relevant period were held on this road and all the decisions taken in the Assembly were communicated to the public on this road.
With the relocation of the Assembly over time, a process began in which the historical importance of the road was gradually forgotten, and it has come to the present day. With the tram line passing through Cumhuriyet Street, the opportunity to reveal the historical features of this road on which the Republic was established has arisen. The idea that today's Cumhuriyet Street is Atatürk's Way and that it should be redesigned according to these historical features has emerged.
Within the scope of the project, the following design decisions were taken regarding Atatürk's Road:
- The floor coverings between Ankara Train Station and Atatürk Statue were redesigned to emphasize the monumental features.
- The importance of the road will be emphasized in daily life with various water, light and plant shows. At the same time, water and light shows will be made ceremonial on all important days (Atatürk's arrival in Ankara, the declaration of Ankara as the capital, the establishment of the Republic, etc.).
The Idea of the 100th Anniversary of the Republic of Turkey
The idea of redesigning the Atatürk Road according to its historical importance revealed the idea that the 100th Anniversary Monument should be built on this road for the year 2023, when we will celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Republic.
It has been seen that it is possible to reconsider the single-storey mass located at the northern end of the building and facing the 1st and 2nd Assembly buildings and transform it into a 100th Anniversary Monument, and in this context, the following design decisions have been taken within the scope of the project:
- The existing reinforced concrete structure on the lower ground floor of the building was preserved and the reinforced concrete structure above the ground floor was removed.
- It was decided that the monument should be made entirely of glass in order to create itself without closing the historical structures in the region and without competing with them.
- By using glass plates, a structure consisting of columns and beams was produced from glass. The glass structure produced is covered with a permeable building envelope (walls and roof). At the heart of the space, which is protected by glass columns and beams, the statue of the 100th Anniversary of the Republic is placed with all its transparency.
City Museum Idea
The buildings in historical city centers in many cities of the world are inevitably re-functionalized with social-cultural programs that concern the whole society, instead of their current functions, in order to keep up with the change that is being experienced. In its current form, there are shops and shops of various sizes on the lower ground floor of the building. Today, as a result of the transformation of commerce in the world into e-commerce, it has become impossible to maintain the commercial functions in the structure of the 100th anniversary bazaar. The fact that the building is located on the periphery of Ulus Square, the places on the lower ground floor of the building receive indirect light, there are many museums in the region, but there is no big museum related to the studies on the city of Ankara, etc. data revealed the idea that the relevant lower ground floor sections of the building can be considered as the City Museum. .
The idea of the City Museum was implemented in the project with the following design decisions:
- The ceremonial entrance-exit hall of the City Museum was created on the face of the 100th Anniversary Monument Building, which was produced using glass plaques, facing Ulus Square. From the gallery space created in the ceremonial entrance-exit hall, visitors are provided to reach the foyer of the City Museum with a glass staircase and a glass elevator.
- The commercial courtyard, which is located on the lower floor of the building and can be reached from Ulus Square with the stairs, has been reconsidered as the courtyard of the City Museum.
- The general entrance-exit hall of the City Museum, the illuminated façades of the exhibition spaces, the workshops and the offices of the curators of the museum are located on the periphery of the courtyard.
- In the center of the courtyard, there are 2 exhibition venues (for the exhibitions "Building a City: Ankara 1923-1933" and "Civil Architectural Memory Ankara 1930-1980"), which can be accessed without a ticket.
- In the foyer, which is reached together with the entrance - exit hall on the lower floor: information, cloakroom, ticketing and front office services are provided.
- In the foyer, necessary spaces have been proposed for the exhibition of large-scale models describing the development of the city of Ankara.
- Exhibition spaces of various sizes started from the walls of the Ankara city models in the middle of the foyer.
The Idea of Expansion of Ulus Square With Streets Inside the Existing Building
The building is located on the periphery of Ulus Square, the square expands to the building boundary as a result of the pedestrianization of the streets around the square, the roof of the theater hall on the lower ground in the western part of the building has the characteristics of a square, creating streets on the ground floor of the existing building, pulling the Ulus Square into the building, continuing the square with the streets inside the building. This led to the idea of reaching the terrace in the west.
The idea of expanding Ulus Square into the building by creating streets inside the building was realized in the project with the following design decisions:
- In a way to support the life in Ulus Square, on the ground floor of the building: 100th Anniversary Monument, Entrance - Exit of the City Museum, Art - Craft Workshops, Sales Shops and Cafe programs of the works to be produced in the workshops were decided.
- The program items listed above are “100. The "Year Monument" and the "Entry - Exit Places" of the City Museum were brought together to form streets suitable for the environment of Ulus.
- The streets were designed to be an extension of Ulus Square, taking into account the level differences in the floor of the building and the structure of the building.
- The ground floor of the building is designed as permeable as possible with the streets.
The Idea of Reinterpreting of the Historical Nation's Garden As Hanging Gardens in the Building
The fact that the National Garden was located in the region before the building, the building produced many terrace roofs by withdrawing from the Parliament buildings and Ulus Square, the terraces produced can be supported by the programs on the relevant floors, the terraces in question can have independent access from the Ulus Square, the historical Millet Garden found in the region today In the building, he revealed the idea that it can be reproduced by interpreting it as Millet Hanging Gardens.
The idea of Millet Hanging Gardens was implemented in the project with the following design decisions:
- The roof of the existing theater was reconsidered and designed as the first floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens, as an extension of Ulus Square.
- An Amphitheater has been designed on the facade of this first floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens facing Atatürk's Road. On the one hand, the integration of the first floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens with the “Atatürk's Path” has been ensured, while on the other hand, it is possible to watch the ceremonies and the cultural heritage of the region and to hold various activities. has been removed. On this first floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens, a Cafe was designed to support the streets, Ulus Square, Amphitheater and Millet Garden.
- The 2nd, 3rd and 4th suspended garden floors of the nation's hanging gardens have been designed in such a way that all open spaces on the 2nd, 3rd and 10th floors of the building will function as extensions of the relevant floors and have free access from the square level.
- In each of the Millet Hanging Gardens, fixed trees positioned on columns and curtains and groundcovers in portable light soil hoppers are planted with various types of plants.
- Various seating units have been created around the soil reservoirs of the trees.
Library - Research Center Idea
The need for social life spaces of the universities in the region, the benefit of keeping the region alive 24 hours a day, the need for study spaces with socialization opportunities in Ankara in general, the necessity of refunctioning the shops and store spaces on the 1st and 2nd floors of the building, which have a view of the region, It has revealed the idea of re-functioning the 1st and 2nd floors of the building as a Library - Research Center, where socialization opportunities are strong.
The idea of a Socializing Library - Research Center was realized in the project with the following design decisions:
The Book Café was designed to support the streets on the ground floor of the building and the first floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens and to create free reading and research spaces.
- On the 1st floor of the building, due to its proximity to the ground floor, collective spaces where voice work can be done and group study halls of various sizes are designed.
- On the second floor of the building, which is quieter and has its own terrace roof, collective spaces where quiet work can be done and group study halls of various sizes have been produced.
- The terrace roof, which is an extension of the 2nd floor, was designed as an open-air extension of the Library - Research Center, forming the 2nd floor of the Millet Hanging Gardens.
Ideas of Transparent Facades
Despite the efforts to move away from the 1st and 2nd Parliament Buildings in terraced levels, the large volume of the building and the fact that the National Garden was found before the building caused many discussions that started at the time it was built and continues today, questioning whether its existence is true or not. The massive state of the building, the opacity of its façades and the discussion summarized above have revealed the idea that the façades of the building should be handled more transparently.
The idea of transparent facades was realized in the project with the following design decisions:
The upper floors of the building have been re-functionalized with programs that can be opened completely to the outside. Thus, the facades could be handled completely transparently.
The program elements, which can be opened to the outside, were also pulled into the building and City Balconies and City Piers were produced on the periphery of the building.
As much as possible, the circulation between the main program elements has been made clear. Thus, the building's façade closures and occupancy above the ground were tried to be minimized.
With the vertical sunshade system used to provide solar control, transparency on the building facades has also been added to depth.
With the use of vertical sunshades in the building envelope, on the one hand, the interiors have been provided to benefit from sunlight comfortably, and on the other hand, the building envelope has become dynamic. Thus, it is aimed to further reduce the static massive mass effect of the structure.
Dormitory - Guest House Idea
Due to economic reasons, the general increases in housing prices across the country in recent years and the numerical inadequacy of dormitories forced a significant portion of university students to live in parks and streets at the beginning of the 2021-2022 academic year. The resulting images have been recorded as the most dramatic student events in Turkey in recent years. The deepening of the economic crisis in the current period raises the possibility of similar and perhaps more dramatic moments in the upcoming academic years.
The fact that the existing 100th Anniversary Bazaar Building is close to public transportation and universities, the structure is not suitable for hotels and housing-derived accommodation places in terms of structure and location, the fact that the students are in the Ulus region for 24 hours will contribute to the revival of the region, the existence of economic commercial activities in the Ulus region in general The idea of using the tower section of the building as a dormitory and guesthouse has been revealed due to reasons such as its overlap with student life.
The dormitory and guesthouse idea was realized in the project with the following design decisions:
- Minimal dormitory rooms with equal conditions for individual study and sleep have been produced on the periphery of the tower. Thus, it was ensured that students who had to sleep and work in different time zones did not disturb each other.
- Dormitory rooms were grouped in accordance with the mass movements in the building, and a common living room and wet areas were produced for each group.
- The dormitory rooms are placed on the night corridors, one end of which opens to the common living rooms and the other end to the wet areas. Thus, the dormitory rooms were made quiet on the one hand, and on the other hand, the privacy of the transition from the rooms to the wet areas was ensured.
- The common living rooms, on the other hand, were handled like the living room in the residences, supported by the kitchen, and thus, the opportunity for the related student group to socialize with each other in the family environment was revealed.
- Wet areas are designed in a way that can be accessed from night corridors and common living spaces and can breathe natural light.
- In wet areas, toilets, sinks and showers are designed to be used independently.
- The showers are designed as double sets with dressing - dressing and shower cabins, so that they can be used individually comfortably.
- A reinforced concrete fire escape was designed to replace the existing steel fire escape, thus enabling students to be evacuated without any life-threatening risks in the event of a fire.
- By producing blinds on the facades of dormitory rooms, the opportunity for the student concerned to independently provide their own solar control has been revealed in each dormitory room. This opportunity has revealed the differentiation of the facade of the building at every hour of the day. This differentiation will allow the building to have a moving façade instead of a static façade, and will provide the environment with the feeling that there is life in the building at all times.
Urban Planning Report: Ecological City Center Approach For Ulus HCC (Ekomia)
The eco-mia approach is an environmentally friendly and sustainable center planning approach, such as the evaluation and development of ecological, historical and cultural data based on climatic data, material and energy saving, environmentally friendly rehabilitation of the infrastructure, and recycling of wastes.
These ecological planning approach strategies have been designed by considering the architecture and urban characteristics of the 100th Anniversary Bazaar, and with a comprehensive Ecological planning approach (EKOMIA), objectives and methods for public transportation, conservation-renewal and transformation have been developed in Ulus Historical City Center. Strategies determined in this context have been established.
Consideration of the 100th Bazaar and Its Surroundings within the Boundaries of Ulus Historical City Center within the Scope of Eco-Mia Principles and Contemporary Architecture-Planning Approaches
• The axis starting from the station and going up to the castle will be considered as “a cultural axis”.
• Since the 100th Anniversary Bazaar is located across the 1st Parliament and Ulus Square, which are the venues of “Liberation and Establishment”, it will be considered as a commemoration square/memorial place and “Sociocultural Center” for the 100th anniversary of the Republic in 2023.
STRATEGY 1: Ekomia Pedestrianization
• It is aimed to ensure the diversity and continuity of walking spaces, to reduce traffic lanes and to reduce traffic speed.
• In the region where Ankara Ulus Historical City Center and 100th Year Bazaar are located, it is aimed to pedestrianize the region thanks to the pedestrian axes and green systems determined in the region for easier access of pedestrians to the region.
STRATEGY 2: Public Transport: Rail Public Transport System + Tram
• It is aimed to create policies such as public transportation regulation (metro+tramway), areal pricing or congestion pricing application for Ulus Historical City Center, and higher fees for those who come to the area by car.
• To meet the pedestrian transportation that will come to the region with the existing public transportation systems and roads in and around the competition area and to construct a system that will work together with the pedestrian axes, green areas and squares created within the region.
• With the tram system planned in the region, it is aimed to provide pedestrians access to the inner parts of Ankara Castle and Ulus region with this system.
STRATEGY 3: Speed Reduction + Special Vehicle Purge
• It is aimed to construct Ulus City Center in such a way that it can be easily accessed by public transport, but difficult to pass through by automobile.
• The target is the historical city center free from private vehicles and regional car parks located on the peripheries of EKOMIA.
• Located around Ulus Historical City Center; Altındağ Municipality building, Terminus area planned to be built to the north of Hacı Bayram Mosque, and car parks under Mehlika Hatun Mosque are considered to serve the whole area. In this way, the use of private vehicles in the historical city center will be reduced. Transportation within the region will be provided by trams and public transportation systems at these parking lots.
STRATEGY 4: Shared Roads and Pedestrian Zones
• It is aimed to design one lane of each of the main arteries, such as Anafartalar, Posta and Denizciler Caddesi, together with pedestrians and greenery.
• Within the scope of the relationship between Ulus Historical City Center and the 100th Anniversary Bazaar, the proposed tram system and bicycle lanes are envisaged as a system that works together.
STRATEGY 5: Making the Centenary Bazaar and Environmental Relations a Cultural and Social Center
• It is aimed to design a social and cultural center by integrating the Assembly, the Second Assembly, the State Guesthouse (Ankara Palas), and the 100th Anniversary Bazaar. (Republican Museum and City Museum)
• Together with the 1st Assembly, 2nd Assembly and State Guesthouse located around the 100th Year Bazaar, it is aimed that this area will be a cultural center for public use.
STRATEGY 6: A Cultural Axis Extending from the Station to Ankara Castle
• A tram system has been proposed within the region within the scope of the Ulus Historical City Center and the 100th Year Bazaar relationship.
Summary of the Decisions
• For Ulus Historical City Center; A tram system has been proposed for the area between the Roman Baths in the north, Talatpaşa Boulevard in the south, around the Youth Park in the west and Ankara Castle in the east. With this proposal, the importance of the 100th Anniversary Bazaar was preserved.
• Located within the borders of Ulus Historical City Center; The newly built Terminus, the area where Altındağ Metropolitan Municipality Building is located, and the area where Mehlike Hatun Mosque is located in the Opera Square have been selected as the regional parking lot for individual vehicles coming to the region.
• Located in Ulus Historical City Center; Conservation proposals have been developed for Hacıbayram Neighborhood, Necatibey Neighborhood, Hacidogan and Jewish Quarter.
• The scope of the conservation proposals developed for Hacıbayram Neighborhood is a conservation and renewal area. Historical buildings in this region should be considered within the scope of construction principles and contemporary architecture, landscape and planning understanding of the period.
• The scope of conservation approaches for Necatibey Neighborhood is rehabilitation and protection. For the buildings and units in this neighborhood, it has been suggested that the buildings should be improved by using modern technological opportunities and that the ones that are worth protecting should be protected within the scope of conservation principles.
• The recommended conservation approach for Hacıdoğan and Jewish Neighborhoods, where the most damaged buildings are located in the region, is absolute conservation and restoration. In this way, it is recommended that the buildings with historical value in the neighborhoods but which are on the verge of decay and demolition should be preserved absolutely.
• Finally, it is envisaged that the region, where Early Republican buildings are located and which is the entrance to Ulus Historical City Center and which includes structures such as Ulus Square, 100th Year Bazaar, 1st Parliament Building, Ankara Palas, will be a UNESCO World Heritage Proposal Site. Thus, both the early Republican period buildings and the historical and cultural identity of the region were preserved.
Eko-Mia Transportation Principles and Transportation System Analysis
Based on the findings obtained within the scope of the study, transportation system suggestions for Ankara Ulus Historical City Center and 100. Yıl Bazaar were developed. These suggestions are for the protection and survival of the region and the sustainability of these two relations according to the principles of Eco-Mia. At the same time, these recommendations were mapped regionally and schematically.
In this regard, one of the biggest problems for Ulus Historical City Center is vehicle traffic. The source of this problem is; Atatürk Boulevard, Talatpaşa Boulevard and Bend Deresi Avenue, located on the periphery of the region, serve as the main carrier arteries to Ulus, and at the same time, the parking lots in the region encourage access to the historical center by car.
It is unacceptable for today's conservation, eco-mia and transportation principles to be able to enter a historical center like Ulus so easily by private car. Because sustainable modes for many cities are now seen as successful if they precede the automobile-based planning approach for many cities.
The suggestion developed for this is; It has been in the form of the construction of regional car parks on the 3 main arteries surrounding the Ulus Historical City Center (Atatürk Boulevard, Talatpaşa Street and Bend Deresi Street). Thus, Ulus Historical City Center will not only get rid of a new understanding of construction and demolition, but also a solution proposal will be developed that will reduce the vehicle traffic in the historical center as much as possible, instead of the point car parks in the region.
In this context, the selection of the proposed location for the regional car parks is important both in terms of the distribution of pedestrians to the center and the sustainability of these areas with the green areas around them.
As the route of the tram system proposed for Ulus Historical City Center; A route has been proposed starting from Ulus Square to the Roman Bath in the north, the regional parking lot on Talatpaşa Street via Opera Square in the south, and the entrance gate of the Ankara Castle in the west. This proposed tram route, together with pedestrian paths and green systems; A building that will unite the Roman Bath, Hacı Bayram Mosque and Ankara Monument, Ankara Castle, Horse Bazaar and Saman Bazaar Areas, Anatolian Civilizations Museum, Nation State, Opera Square and Ulus Square. has been built in. In this regard, in Ulus; Sustainable use and coexistence of cultural, economic, historical and social regions are aimed. Thus, Ulus Historical City Center was reconstructed as pedestrian, not motor vehicle.